Subjects listened to a tape of a man enthusiastically describing a tedious peg-turning task. The results obtained were similar to the original Festinger-Carlsmith experiment. Because the observers, who did not have access to the actors' internal cognition and mood states, were able to infer the true attitude of the actors, it is possible that the actors themselves also arrive at their attitudes by observing their own behavior. Specifically, Bem notes how "the attitude statements which comprise the major dependent variables in dissonance experiments may be regarded as interpersonal judgments in which the observer and the observed happen to be the same individual.
This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. October Learn how and when to remove this template message Typically for any theory to be accepted within most academia there is one simple criterion.
The essential criterion is that the theory must be observable and Theory evidence essay. The aforementioned criterion is essential to prevent fraud and perpetuate science itself.
The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. Plate tectonic theory successfully explains numerous observations about the Earth, including the distribution of earthquakes, mountains, continents, and oceans.
The defining characteristic of all scientific knowledge, including theories, is the ability to make falsifiable or testable predictions.
The relevance and specificity of those predictions determine how potentially useful the theory is. A would-be theory that makes no observable predictions is not a scientific theory at all.
Predictions not sufficiently specific to be tested are similarly not useful. In both cases, the term "theory" is not applicable.
A body of descriptions of knowledge can be called a theory if it fulfills the following criteria: It makes falsifiable predictions with consistent accuracy across a broad area of scientific inquiry such as mechanics.
It is well-supported by many independent strands of evidence, rather than a single foundation. It is consistent with preexisting experimental results and at least as accurate in its predictions as are any preexisting theories.
Other criteria[ edit ] In addition, scientists prefer to work with a theory that meets the following qualities: It can be subjected to minor adaptations to account for new data that do not fit it perfectly, as they are discovered, thus increasing its predictive capability over time.
This is because for each accepted explanation of a phenomenon, there may be an extremely large, perhaps even incomprehensible, number of possible and more complex alternatives, because one can always burden failing explanations with ad hoc hypotheses to prevent them from being falsified; therefore, simpler theories are preferable to more complex ones because they are more testable.
The formal scientific definition of theory is quite different from the everyday meaning of the word. It refers to a comprehensive explanation of some aspect of nature that is supported by a vast body of evidence.
Many scientific theories are so well established that no new evidence is likely to alter them substantially. For example, no new evidence will demonstrate that the Earth does not orbit around the sun heliocentric theoryor that living things are not made of cells cell theorythat matter is not composed of atoms, or that the surface of the Earth is not divided into solid plates that have moved over geological timescales the theory of plate tectonics One of the most useful properties of scientific theories is that they can be used to make predictions about natural events or phenomena that have not yet been observed.
A scientific theory is a well-substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world, based on a body of facts that have been repeatedly confirmed through observation and experiment. Such fact-supported theories are not "guesses" but reliable accounts of the real world. The theory of biological evolution is more than "just a theory".
It is as factual an explanation of the universe as the atomic theory of matter or the germ theory of disease. Our understanding of gravity is still a work in progress. But the phenomenon of gravity, like evolution, is an accepted fact.
Note that the term theory would not be appropriate for describing untested but intricate hypotheses or even scientific models. The first observation of cellsby Robert Hookeusing an early microscope.The gateway theory doesn’t add up.
The vast majority of marijuana users do not go on to hard drugs. /> Your browser does not support the audio element. Audio: Why did Edgar Allan Poe die? No one has ever been able to really answer that question.
Self-perception theory (SPT) is an account of attitude formation developed by psychologist Daryl Bem. It asserts that people develop their attitudes (when there is no previous attitude due to a lack of experience, etc.—and the emotional response is ambiguous) by observing their own behavior and concluding what attitudes must have caused it.
The theory is counterintuitive in nature, as the. A skeptical look at the welter of nonsense, misinformation, and disinformation surrounding the murder of JFK.
Debunks various myths. Theory And Evidence Of Microfinance And Poverty Economics Essay. Print Reference this. Published: 23rd March, Disclaimer: This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.
empirical evidence are being analysed and discussed more appropriately below. The Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University houses writing resources and instructional material, and we provide these as a free service of the Writing Lab at Purdue.