In fact, this phrase implies multiplicity of meanings. The first meaning is that someone can better judge himself if he has done what he should or could have done.
Origins "Nihilism" comes from the Latin nihil, or nothing, which means not anything, that which does not exist.
It appears in the verb "annihilate," meaning to bring to nothing, to destroy completely. Early in the nineteenth century, Friedrich Jacobi used the word to negatively characterize transcendental idealism. In Russia, nihilism became identified with a loosely organized revolutionary movement C.
In his early writing, anarchist leader Mikhael Bakunin composed the notorious entreaty still identified with nihilism: The movement advocated a social arrangement based on rationalism and materialism as the sole source of knowledge and individual freedom as the highest goal.
The movement eventually deteriorated into an ethos of subversion, destruction, and anarchy, and by the late s, a nihilist was anyone associated with clandestine political groups advocating terrorism and assassination.
The earliest philosophical positions associated with what could be characterized as a nihilistic outlook are those of the Skeptics. Because they denied the possibility of certainty, Skeptics could denounce traditional truths as unjustifiable opinions. Extreme skepticism, then, is linked to epistemological nihilism which denies the possibility of knowledge and truth; this form of nihilism is currently identified with postmodern antifoundationalism.
Nihilism, in fact, can be understood in several different ways. Political Nihilism, as noted, is associated with the belief that the destruction of all existing political, social, and religious order is a prerequisite for any future improvement.
Ethical nihilism or moral nihilism rejects the possibility of absolute moral or ethical values. Instead, good and evil are nebulous, and values addressing such are the product of nothing more than social and emotive pressures. Existential nihilism is the notion that life has no intrinsic meaning or value, and it is, no doubt, the most commonly used and understood sense of the word today.
For Stirner, achieving individual freedom is the only law; and the state, which necessarily imperils freedom, must be destroyed. Even beyond the oppression of the state, though, are the constraints imposed by others because their very existence is an obstacle compromising individual freedom.
Thus Stirner argues that existence is an endless "war of each against all" The Ego and its Own, trans. Friedrich Nietzsche and Nihilism Among philosophers, Friedrich Nietzsche is most often associated with nihilism.
For Nietzsche, there is no objective order or structure in the world except what we give it. For him, nihilism requires a radical repudiation of all imposed values and meaning: The caustic strength of nihilism is absolute, Nietzsche argues, and under its withering scrutiny "the highest values devalue themselves.
Inevitably, nihilism will expose all cherished beliefs and sacrosanct truths as symptoms of a defective Western mythos.
This collapse of meaning, relevance, and purpose will be the most destructive force in history, constituting a total assault on reality and nothing less than the greatest crisis of humanity: What I relate is the history of the next two centuries. I describe what is coming, what can no longer come differently: For some time now our whole European culture has been moving as toward a catastrophe, with a tortured tension that is growing from decade to decade: In each of the failed cultures he examines, Spengler noticed that centuries-old religious, artistic, and political traditions were weakened and finally toppled by the insidious workings of several distinct nihilistic postures: In his study, Spengler concludes that Western civilization is already in the advanced stages of decay with all three forms of nihilism working to undermine epistemological authority and ontological grounding.
InMartin Heidegger, to cite another example, observed that nihilism in various and hidden forms was already "the normal state of man" The Question of Being. Outlining the symptoms of nihilism in the 20th century, Helmut Thielicke wrote that "Nihilism literally has only one truth to declare, namely, that ultimately Nothingness prevails and the world is meaningless" Nihilism: Its Origin and Nature, with a Christian Answer, Albert Einstein shared his thoughts on the meaning of life and his own spiritual views.
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Introduction group about yahoo answers philosophy pdf rural and urban in zone. The Love of My Life In the short story “The Love of My Life,” two teenagers make one bad decision and their lives are changed forever. The author, T. Coraghessan Boyle, wrote the story based on an actual news story that had occurred a few years back.
Culture is a particular group of people's way of life. What that culture has idealized, moralized, and valued. Culture defines our learned behavior, whether it be the rules that define the customary ways of our thinking, feeling, social expectations, and / or our community laws/5(1).
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ART ESSAYS. The meaning of art as viewed by various philosophers: Tolstoy Hegel Wittgenstein People who consider the meaning of art to be pleasure cannot realise its true meaning, in fact, people will come to understand the meaning of art only when they cease to consider that the aim of art is pleasure.
If the meaning of life is seen in.