The Victorian Internet The concept of data communication — transmitting data between two different places through an electromagnetic medium such as radio or an electric wire — pre-dates the introduction of the first computers. Such communication systems were typically limited to point to point communication between two end devices. Semaphore linestelegraph systems and telex machines can be considered early precursors of this kind of communication.
Our criteria By what criteria would we determine what was a primitive Internet?
We will examine the various verifiable events according to the following criteria Was it a connection between networks? Did it involve computers? Did it involve humans communicating with each other? Was it an actual event and not a theoretical document?
If a theory passes all these tests, the final test is - was it the first "Internet"? These criteria, we suggest, all have to be met before we have the event which could be called "the birthday of the Internet".
If not all are met, we are dealing with a different but perhaps closely related species, or with a theory which was at that place and time untested. So, let the games begin! Theory One - Packet switching represents the origins of the Internet The Arpanet claim to Internet origins largely rests on acceptance of this theory and a belief that this was the first ever packet switching exchange.
As Kleinrock is purported to have reflected on the 35th anniversary of this event in"When we sent that first message, it marked the birth of a new method of global communications that has forever changed the course of business, politics, entertainment, education and social interaction, Now, 35 years later, the Internet has become so pervasive that even my year-old mother uses it.
It was not the first packet switching event It was not about people communicating over distance It was not a connection relating to "a network of networks". Let's explore the flaws in this theory in more detail. It never got funded; but Donald Davies did develop the concept of packet switching, a means by which messages can travel from point to point across a network.
Kim Veltman goes further in exploring this "We are almost always told that the Internet began solely in America. This is not really true. The earliest pioneers included a Frenchman, Louis Pouzin, who introduced the idea of data grams and an Englishman, Donald W.
Davies, who was one of the inventors of packet-switching. Another of the great pioneers in Britain was Peter T. Kirstein, who went to America at the beginning of the Arpanet in when it was decided that Davies could not go for reasons of national security.
Hence an English project of inspired the beginnings of the US Internet in ". What follows from this analysis is that, if we believe that the first trials of packet switching represents the beginnings of the Internet, the Internet began in the UK, not USA.
But does that theory meet all our tests? Arpanet in was not about people communicating over distance Another reason to reject the Arpanet origins theory is that the Arpanet was not about people communicating over distance at all - something which would be a primary determinant of what we know as the Internet.
Arpanet was about time-sharing. Time sharing tried to make it possible for research institutions to use the processing power of other institutions computers when they had large calculations to do that required more power, or when someone else's facility might do the job better.
Although Arpanet developed packet switching, Larry Roberts Project Manager and Architect for the Arpanet project makes it clear that sending messages between people was "not an important motivation for a network of scientific computers". It seems difficult to stretch belief that timesharing between mainframe computers is the Internet - a point of origin perhaps, but hardly the single point of beginnings for the Internet.
What defines the Internet is the capacity to connect networks of different types. It therefore follows that Arpanet as a single network could hardly be described as an Internet - Arpanet would have to connect to something completely different before it could be part of an Internet.
According to Bob Kahn, who we will hear more of in the next section, "What the ARPANET didn't address was the issue of interconnecting multiple networks and all the attendant issues that raised.
Findings on Arpanet origins theory For the above reasons, we do not believe that and Arpanet can claim to be the origins of the Internet. If packet switching is the origins, the Internet was invented elsewhere. If we are looking at some other role Arpanet played, the date is not and another theory will have to pass our tests.
Vinton Cerf had worked on the earlier Arpanet protocols while at the University of California in Los Angeles from He moved to Stanford University in late Bob Kahn visited Stanford in the spring of and he and Vint Cerf discussed the problem of interconnecting multiple packet networks that were NOT identical.
They developed the basic concepts of TCP at that time, and presented it to the newly established International Networking Group.The explosive growth of the Internet over the last decade is attributed to two basic reasons - the non-centralized management of its development and the non-proprietary nature of its main functional units - the Internet protocols.
The Internet today is a widespread information infrastructure, the initial prototype of what is often called the National (or Global or Galactic) Information Infrastructure.
Its history is complex and involves many aspects – technological, organizational, and community. Development of the Internet and the World Wide Web The recent growth of the Internet and the World Wide Web makes it appear that the world is witnessing the arrival of a completely new technology. The Internet was the result of some visionary thinking by people in the early s who saw great potential value in allowing computers to share information on research and development in scientific and military fields.
he Internet Engineering Task Force is the international standards and development body of the Internet and is a large, open community of network designers, operators, vendors and researchers concerned with the evolution and smooth operation of the Internet architecture.
The explosive growth of the Internet over the last decade is attributed to two basic reasons - the non-centralized management of its development and the non-proprietary nature of its main functional units - the Internet protocols.