Advanced Search In a now-classic round table discussion among a group of noted historians inthe Journal of American History introduced its readers to the then-new discipline of environmental history. The field had its roots in several venerable scholarly enterprises—including the historiography of the American frontier, traditional American studies, the Annales school, historical geography, cultural ecology, and the political history of conservation—but it coalesced with the rise of the environmental movement in the s and s, catalyzed by a growing sense that solving national and global environmental problems required a historical perspective. And as social historians had done with their subjects of study, environmental historians sought to extend moral consideration to the natural world.
In fact, there are often complications which are not readily discernible to judges, lawyers, counsellors, or even the parents and children. Such a "complication" occurs when a divorcing parent or parents attempt to brainwash or program their children during a custody dispute.
This issue has not been given frank or frequent treatment in either law or psychiatry. However, it has the potential to be the most destructive aspect in custody disputes.
It is apparent, from the limited studies that have been done, that mothers are usually the source of the brainwashing. Two alternate and opposing explanations are available: Thus, the main catalyst for brainwashing is a combination of fear and loss - because a parent is alienated from the life they knew, they become alienating.
Upper-middle class with 2. From this one could conclude that brainwashing requires intelligence and skill. However, it may be that parents in a higher social class perceive their children as being another possession they could lose in the divorce. On a related note, they may be trying to keep up appearances as the "perfect" parent - having custody is an important part of this "role.
Lower class, less educated parents do brainwash their children - though less frequently. Whether this is a product of social class or intelligence is uncertain. Perhaps the difference is in the brainwashing techniques - lower class parents may not brainwash with the same kind of formality and structure as the upper class, educated parents.
This could skew the data. While there is no final explanation for the data, they indicate that brainwashing is not a rare phenomenon. It has also been found that spouses who have a history of physically, socially-psychologically abusing their partner employ brainwashing simply as a new tool of abuse.
Thus, it is virtually impossible to determine a "brainwasher" profile. The fact is that any divorcing parent involved in a custody dispute - if sufficiently alienated from their own world - could have the potential to become alienating. Theories There are multiple theories accounting for brainwashing during custody.
However, whether any, all, or a combination of these theories apply to a particular family will depend, to a large extent, on: However, more sophisticated theories have been devised to explain the phenomenon.
Alignment is one such theory. He said, She said, Who said?
There is a loss of the ambivalence found in normal human relationships - the target parent is objectified by the alienating parent as an evil entity.
Refusal of visitation is often so multi-determined that it is difficult to link the refusal directly with P. Johnston indicates that estimating the Parents and children become caught in a cycle. For instance, as the frequency of refusals to visit increase, parental disputes heighten, parents become more skeptical of the value of visitation, and the rejected parent engages in counter-rejection.
False sex abuse allegations against the target parent entail similar complexities.
Though the allegations may be false, they are usually "based upon a core of reality. Nonetheless, unlike refusal of visitation, there appear to be criteria which can be applied in the case of sexual allegations.
There was a lot of bleeding. My mommy was there and she got very angry at my daddy and she gave him time out. In fact, most, of the criteria seem to be based on fairly obvious observations and differences between true and false incest victims can be found in their disclosures.Feb 07, · Parental Alienation Syndrome: A 'Hidden' Facet of Custody Disputes by Lisa Cook extending through the years of childhood and adolescence in his [or her] relations with both parents, [a child] builds up working models of how attachment figures are likely to behave towards him in any variety of situations; and on those models are based all his expectations, and therefore all his .
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