Sample of Writing Feedback The sample writing feedback here is an abbreviated version of a manuscript evaluation, which normally provides 6 to 10 pages of feedback. General Comments for Your Story I imagine that you poured your soul into the writing of this piece, and the authenticity shows.
Background Total Physical Response TPR is a language teaching method built around the coordination of speech and action; it attempts to teach language through physical motor activity. Let us briefly consider these precedents to Total Physical Response. Total Physical Response is linked to the "trace theory " of memory in psychology, which holds that the more often or the more intensively a memory connection is traced, the stronger the memory association will be and the more likely it will be recalled.
Retracing can be done verbally e. In a developmental sense, Asher sees successful adult second language learning as a parallel process to child first language acquisition. He claims that speech directed to young children consists primarily of commands, which children respond to physically before they begin to produce verbal responses.
Asher feels adults should recapitulate the processes by which children acquire their mother tongue. Asher shares with the school of humanistic psychology a concern for the role of affective emotional factors in language learning. A method that is undemanding in terms of linguistic production and that involves gamelike movements reduces learner stress, he believes, and creates a positive mood in the learner, which facilitates learning.
Asher's emphasis on developing comprehension skills before the learner is taught to speak links him to a movement in foreign language teaching sometimes referred to as the Comprehension Approach Winitz This refers to several different comprehension-based language teaching proposals, which share the belief that a comprehension abilities precede productive skills in learning a language; b the teaching of speaking should be delayed until comprehension skills are established; c skills acquired through listening transfer to other skills; d teaching should emphasize meaning rather than form; and e teaching should minimize learner stress.
The emphasis on comprehension and the use of physical actions to teach a foreign language at an introductory level has a long tradition in language teaching. Approach Theory of language Asher does not directly discuss the nature of language or how languages are organized.
However, the labeling and ordering of TPR classroom drills seem to be built on assumptions that owe much to structuralist or grammar-based views of language. He views the verb, and particularly the verb in the imperative, as the central linguistic motif around which language use and learning are organized.
Asher sees language as being composed of abstractions and non-abstractions, with non-abstractions being most specifically represented by concrete nouns and imperative verbs. Abstractions should be delayed until students have internalized a detailed cognitive map of the target language.
Abstractions are not necessary for people to decode the grammatical structure of a language. Once students have internalized the code, abstractions can be introduced and explained in the target language. This is an interesting claim about language but one that is insufficiently detailed to test.
For example, are tense, aspect, articles, and so forth, abstractions, and if so, what sort of "detailed cognitive map" could be constructed without them? Despite Asher's belief in the central role of comprehension in language learning, he does not elaborate on the relation between comprehension, production, and communication he has no theory of speech acts or their equivalents, for examplealthough in advanced TPR lessons imperatives are used to initiate different speech acts, such as requests "John, ask Mary to walk to the door"and apologies "Ned, tell Jack you're sorry".
We have only clues to what a more fully developed language theory might resemble when spelled out by Asher and his supporters.
Theory of learning Asher's language learning theories are reminiscent of the views of other behavioral psychologists. For example, the psychologist Arthur Jensen proposed a seven-stage model to describe the development of verbal learning in children. The first stage he calls Sv-R type learningwhich the educational psychologist John DeCecco interprets as follows: In Jensen's notation, Sv refers to a verbal stimulus—a syllable, a word, a phrase, and so on.
R refers to the physical movements the child makes in response to the verbal stimulus or Sv.SBLGNT Rom καρδίᾳ γὰρ πιστεύεται εἰς δικαιοσύνην, στόματι δὲ ὁμολογεῖται εἰς σωτηρίαν· In most modern English translations, the grammatical subject is a generic person who believes and.
Which grammatical person should I use when writing to the user? up vote 10 down vote favorite Say a user is signed in to my website and looking at his dashboard which may have a section for his/her incoming messages. Grammatical Person. Topics: Grammatical person, Phrase, Linguistics Pages: 4 ( words) Published: February 7, Amanda Spiker Rough Draft Being a mother My first thoughts about becoming a mother were not what you [Word choice.
You and your mean general humanity. In academic writing, second person (you and your) should be . that behaviorists viewed feedback more as a stimulus-response process, where the purpose of feedback was to stimulate a person to repeat a correct answer.
This . Apr 19, · person denotes a word's grammatical person indicating a speaker's relationship to an event. In English, person is most often used on pronouns to distinguish between speakers (first person), those spoken to (second person), and others (third person).
Annotated Examples of Student Writing The following writing collections are from ELLs in grades 2, 3, 5, 8, and high school. The collections, which come from around the state, show how students at the various proficiency.