The concept became particularly predominant since end of World War II with the widespread use of computer networks. The rise of information science in the middle fifties is a testimony of this. For a science like information science IS it is of course important how its fundamental terms are defined, and in IS as in other fields the problem of how to define information is often raised.
Import into RefWorks 1. Introduction Socio-Cultural Theory SCTbased on Vygotskian thought, is a theory about the development of human cognitive and higher mental function. SLA is concerned with how individuals acquire a certain language other than the native language.
Throughout the few past decades, SLA has been discussed from different perspectives. One of these is behaviorism which proposes that language learning occurs through a series of stimuli and responses and that all learning is the establishment of habits as a result of reinforcement.
Skinner [ 23 ] is one of the champions of this perspective, who holds that language is a verbal behavior, that is, that the production and comprehension of what is uttered is automatic.
Thus, language learners can be made to automatically produce and comprehend language. For behaviorists, no learning occurs if there is no observable change in behavior. They mainly choose to ignore inaccessible mental processes and focus on observable behavior.
The cognitivists proposed that human beings are born with a genetic capability that predisposes them to the systematic perception of language around them, resulting in the construction of an internalized system of language. Therefore, SLA is a complete mental process [ 22 ]. Cognitivism offers a coherent understanding of the learning processes involved.
It presents theoretical support for teaching practices and suggests a range of useful teaching strategies that encourage learning. Another view of language acquisition and development which is the focus of this article is the socio-cultural perspective which makes attempts to depict the interrelated cognitive and social characteristics in acquiring a second language.
However, most research conducted on L2 learning within this general theoretical framework has used the term Socio-Cultural Theory SCTand for this reason we will use this term throughout the paper. Therefore, the central constructs of the theory are mediation, regulation, internalization, the zone of proximal development, verbal thought and activity theory.
Mediation Mediation is the principle construct that unites all varieties of SCT and is rooted in the observation that humans do not act directly on the world—rather their cognitive and material activities are mediated by symbolic tools as well as by physical tools. While physical tools are outwardly directed, symbolic tools are inwardly or cognitively directed.
Just as physical tools serve as auxiliary means to enhance the ability to control and change the physical world, symbolic tools serve as an auxiliary means to control and reorganize our biologically endowed psychological processes [ 2 ].
Language is the most pervasive and powerful symbolic tool cultural artifacts that humans possess to mediate their connection to the world, to each other, and to themselves[ 3 ]. That is, Language imbues humans with the capacity to free themselves from the circumstances of their immediate environment and enables them to talk and think about entities and events that are displaced in both time and space, including those events and entities that do not yet exist in the real world.
In sum, human mental functioning is fundamentally a mediated process that is organized by cultural artifacts, activities, and concepts [ 9 ].
Regulation The original meaning of regulation is the controlling of an activity or process, usually by means of rules. The process of developing self-regulation moves through three general stages. The first stage, known as object-regulation, is that children are often controlled by or by using objects in their environment in order to think.
The second stage, termed other-regulation, includes implicit and explicit mediation involving varying levels of assistance, direction, and what is sometimes described as scaffolding by parents, siblings, peers, coaches, teachers, and so on. The final stage, termed self-regulation, refers to the ability to accomplish activities with minimal or no external support.
Self-regulation is made possible through internalization. Internalization Internalization refers to the process of making what was once external assistance a resource that is internally available to the individual [ 8 ]. Vygotsky captured the interconnection established by internalization in his general law of genetic development: Every psychological function appears twice, first between people on the inter-psychological plane and then within the individual on the intra-psychological plane [ 27 ].
Internalization is a negotiated process that reorganizes the relationship of the individual to her or his social environment and generally carries it into future performance. Internalization accounts for the organic connection between social communication and mental activity and is the mechanism through which we gain control over our brains, the biological organ of thinking.
Imitation is regarded as the best approach by which internalization is realized. The first is the actual developmental level, that is, the level of skill reached by the child working independently.
The second is the future development level, that is, the level of potential skill that the child is able to reach with the assistance of a more capable instructor.
He believed that learning always precedes development in the ZPD. The famous linguist Saussure distinguished between speech and language.
Language belongs to society and is a psychological and social phenomenon while speech belongs to individuals and is a psychological and physical phenomenon [ 7 ]. He also believed that language and speech had close connections so that they cannot be separated, which means that in Socio-Cultural Theory, language and speech have almost the same connotation.
In language development, Vygotsky believed that there were three stages.rutadeltambor.com is a platform for academics to share research papers. Applying SLA Research and Theory To Practice: What Can a Teacher Do? Marjorie Hall Haley George Mason University Patricia Rentz.
Second-language acquisition (SLA), second-language learning, or L2 (language 2) acquisition, is the process by which people learn a second rutadeltambor.com-language acquisition is also the scientific discipline devoted to studying that process. The field of second-language acquisition is a subdiscipline of applied linguistics, but also receives research attention from a variety of other.
The concept of information as we use it in everyday English in the sense knowledge communicated plays a central role in today's society. The concept became particularly predominant since end of World War II with the widespread use of computer networks.
; see also Ellis, ). THE OUTPUT PERSPECTIVE According to Swain (, , ), learner output plays an important role Introduction: From Theory to Practice in Task-Based Learning 5 to practitioners but also to research students and SLA researchers worldwide.
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